What is AMH (anti-mullerian hormone) and what is its relationship to woman’s fertility?
A woman from the day born has a certain number of oocytes in her ovaries. This number may vary among women. Although only one egg usually fully matures during ovulation, somewhere between ten and 20 follicles begin the process of maturation monthly. The excess ovarian follicles are reabsorbed before ovulation occurs and are lost.
AMH is a hormone (glycoprotein) produced in the ovaries from the granulocytes. AMH levels in woman’s blood is an indication of the follicle (eg ova) stocks available.
- decrease as the reproductive age of a woman increases or in premature ovarian failure,
- are Increased in women with polycystic ovaries
Generally, low levels of AMH highlight the problem of reduced ovarian reserve. A woman with very low levels of AMH is likely to have a poor response to fertility drugs used in the ovarian stimulation process during IVF. However, AMH is by no means an indicator of egg quality.
The AMH hormone stays constant over the cycle, which means that the measurement can be done at any time. Measuring its levels, especially when combined with gynecological ovarian ultrasound and hormonal tests (FSH, LH, E2, PRL, etc.) can give us a very safe picture of the fertility potential of a woman.